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A study by Federal Communication Commission shows that most of the spectrum in current wireless networks is unused most of the time, while some spectrum is heavily used. Recently dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed to solve this spectrum inefficiency problem, by allowing users to opportunistically access to unused spectrum. One important question in DSA is how to efficiently share spectrum among users so that spectrum utilization can be increased and wireless interference can be reduced. Spectrum sharing can be formalized as a graph coloring problem. In this report we focus on surveying spectrum sharing techniques in DSA networks and present four representative techniques in different taxonomy domains, including centralized, distributed with/without common control channel, and a real case study of DSA networks --- DARPA neXt Gen- eration (XG) radios. Their strengths and limitations are evaluated and compared in detail. Finally, we discuss the challenges in current spectrum sharing research and possible future directions.
Date Posted: 23 June 2009