Departmental Papers (CIS)

Date of this Version


Document Type

Journal Article


Special Issue on Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications, Domain-Specific Multicore Computing, Cross-Layer Dependable Embedded Systems, and Application of Concurrency to System Design (ACSD'13).


Software-based control of life-critical embedded systems has become increasingly complex, and to a large extent has come to determine the safety of the human being. For example, implantable cardiac pacemakers have over 80,000 lines of code which are responsible for maintaining the heart within safe operating limits. As firmware-related recalls accounted for over 41% of the 600,000 devices recalled in the last decade, there is a need for rigorous model-driven design tools to generate verified code from verified software models. To this effect we have developed the UPP2SF model-translation tool, which facilitates automatic conversion of verified models (in UPPAAL) to models that may be simulated and tested (in Simulink/Stateflow). We describe the translation rules that ensure correct model conversion, applicable to a large class of models. We demonstrate how UPP2SF is used in the model-driven design of a pacemaker whose model is (a) designed and verified in UPPAAL (using timed automata), (b) automatically translated to Stateflow for simulation-based testing, and then (c) automatically generated into modular code for hardware-level integration testing of timing-related errors. In addition, we show how UPP2SF may be used for worst-case execution time estimation early in the design stage. Using UPP2SF, we demonstrate the value of integrated end-to-end modeling, verification, code-generation and testing process for complex software-controlled embedded systems.

Subject Area

CPS Medical

Publication Title

ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)





First Page

Article No. 127



Permission Statement

© ACM 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in Proceedings of the ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS),


design, verification, measurement, model-based development, model translation, medical devices validation and verification, real-time embedded systems



Date Posted: 09 December 2013

This document has been peer reviewed.