Departmental Papers (CIS)

Document Type

Journal Article

Subject Area

CPS Medical

Date of this Version



Pajic, M., Jiang, Z., Lee, I., Sokolsky, O., & Mangharam, R. (2014). Safety-critical medical device development using the UPP2SF model translation tool. ACM Transactions of Embedded Computing Systems, 13(4s), Article No. 127. doi: 10.1145/2584651

© Miroslav Pajic | ACM 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS),


Software-based control of life-critical embedded systems has become increasingly complex, and to a large extent has come to determine the safety of the human being. For example, implantable cardiac pacemakers have over 80,000 lines of code which are responsible for maintaining the heart within safe operating limits. As firmware-related recalls accounted for over 41% of the 600,000 devices recalled in the last decade, there is a need for rigorous model-driven design tools to generate verified code from verified software models. To this effect we have developed the UPP2SF model-translation tool, which facilitates automatic conversion of verified models (in UPPAAL) to models that may be simulated and tested (in Simulink/Stateflow). We describe the translation rules that ensure correct model conversion, applicable to a large class of models. We demonstrate how UPP2SF is used in the model-driven design of a pacemaker whose model is (a) designed and verified in UPPAAL (using timed automata), (b) automatically translated to Stateflow for simulation-based testing, and then (c) automatically generated into modular code for hardware-level integration testing of timing-related errors. In addition, we show how UPP2SF may be used for worst-case execution time estimation early in the design stage. Using UPP2SF, we demonstrate the value of integrated end-to-end modeling, verification, code-generation and testing process for complex software-controlled embedded systems.


Design, Verification, Measurement, Model-based development, model translation, medical devices validation and verification, real-time embedded systems


Date Posted: 09 December 2013

This document has been peer reviewed.