Departmental Papers (BE)

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

5-2012

Publication Source

International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience

Volume

30

Issue

3

Start Page

201

Last Page

206

DOI

10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.10.007

Abstract

Age-based differences in fall type and neuroanatomy in infants and toddlers may affect clinical presentations and injury patterns.

Objective

Our goal is to understand the influence of fall type and age on injuries to help guide clinical evaluation.

Design/Setting/Participants

Retrospectively, 285 children 0–48 months with accidental head injury from a fall and brain imaging between 2000 and 2006 were categorized by age (infan ≤ 1 year and toddler = 1–4 years) and fall type: low (≤3 ft), intermediate (>3 andft), high height falls (≥10 ft) and stair falls.

Outcome Measures

Clinical manifestations were noted and head injuries separated into primary (bleeding) and secondary (hypoxia, edema). The influence of age and fall type on head injuries sustained was evaluated.

Results

Injury patterns in children scores, infants sustained more skull fractures than toddlers (71% vs. 39%). Of children with skull fractures, 11% had no evidence of scalp/facial soft tissue swelling. Of the patients with primary intracranial injury, 30% had no skull fracture and 8% had neither skull fracture nor cranial soft tissue injury. Low height falls resulted in primary intracranial injury without soft tissue or skull injury in infants (6%) and toddlers (16%).

Conclusions

Within a given fall type, age-related differences in injuries exist between infants and toddlers. When interpreting a fall history, clinicians must consider the fall type and influence of age on resulting injury. For young children, intracranial injury is not always accompanied by external manifestations of their injury.

Copyright/Permission Statement

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms, may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in: Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012 May ; 30(3): 201–206. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.10.007.

Keywords

Falls, Brain injury, Mechanism, Age

Share

COinS
 

Date Posted: 25 May 2016

This document has been peer reviewed.